4. О воле и разуме
28. У человека две способности, образующие его жизнь: одна называется Волей, а другая Разумом. Они между собой различны, но так сотворены, что образуют одно; когда же они одно, то называются умом; поэтому они суть ум человека, и в них вся жизнь его.
29. Как во вселенной все, что согласно с Божественным порядком, относится к добру и истине, так и все у человека относится к воле и разуму, потому что добро у человека принадлежит его воле, а истина - его разуму: ибо эти две способности человека суть приемники и носители их. Воля есть приемник и носитель всего доброго, а разум - приемник и носитель всего истинного. Добро и истина не находятся у человека ни в чем ином, а так как они у человека ни в чем ином не находятся, то и любовь и вера не находятся ни в чем ином; на том же основании любовь принадлежит добру, а добро - любви: вера же - истине, а истина - вере.
30. Ввиду того, что все во вселенной относится к добру и истине, и все принадлежащее Церкви относится к добру любви и истине веры, и человек является человеком благодаря этим двум способностям, то и в этом учении будет сказано о них; ибо иначе человек не может составить о них ясного понятия и обосновать свою мысль.
31. Воля и разум образуют также дух человека, ибо в них обитают его мудрость и безумие и, в общем, его жизнь; тело же - только послушное орудие.
32. Ничего нет важнее, как знать, каким образом воля и разум образуют единый ум. Они образуют один ум, как добро и истина образуют одно, ибо существует такое же супружество между волей и разумом, какое существует между добром и истиной. Какого рода это супружество - ясно можно установить из того, что сказано выше о добре и истине; то есть, что как добро есть само бытие (Esse) вещи, а истина - ее существование (Existere) из него, так и воля у человека есть само бытие жизни его, а разум - ее существование из него; ибо добро, принадлежащее воле, образуется в разуме и в нем становится видимым.
33. Те, которые находятся в добре и истине, имеют волю и разум; те же, которые находятся во зле и лжи, не имеют ни воли, ни разума, но вместо воли имеют вожделение (cupido), а вместо разума - знание (sciencia). Так как подлинно человеческая воля есть приемник добра, а разум - приемник истины, то воля не может быть отнесена ко злу, ни разум - ко лжи; ибо они друг другу противоположны, а противоположное друг друга разрушает. Из этого следует, что человек, находящийся во зле, а из него - во лжи, не может быть назван ни рассудительным, ни мудрым, ни разумным. У злых внутреннее ума, где преимущественно обитают воля и разум, затворено. Люди предполагают, что злые также имеют волю и разум, потому что они говорят, что они хотят, и разумеют, но их хотение есть только вожделение, и их разумение - только знание.
34. From the Heavenly Arcana. Spiritual truths cannot be grasped, unless the following Universals be known.
I. Everything in the universe, in order to be anything, has relation to good and truth, and their conjunction; and, consequently, to love and faith, and their conjunction.
II. With man there is will and understanding, and the will is the receptacle of good, and the understanding the receptacle of truth, and everything with him has relation to these two things and their conjunction, even as everything relates to good and truth and their conjunction.
III. There is an internal and an external man, and they are distinct from each other like heaven and the world, and yet they ought to make one, that man may be truly man.
IV. There is a light of heaven in which the internal man is, and a light of the world in which the external man is; and the light of heaven is the very Divine Truth, from which comes all intelligence.
V. There is a correspondence between the things which are in the internal man and those which are in the external man; and thus they appear on either side under a different form, so that they cannot be discerned except by the science of correspondences.
Unless these and many other things are known, only incongruous ideas can be received and formed concerning spiritual and celestial things; wherefore, apart from the above universals, the scientifics and knowledges belonging to the external man, can be only of small assistance to the rational man for all increase of his understanding. From this it appears how necessary scientifics are. Much has been said in the Heavenly Arcana concerning these universals.
35. A man has two faculties, of which one is called the will, and the other the understanding, 35, 641, 3539, 3623, 10122.
Those two faculties constitute the man himself, 10076, 10109, 10110, 10264, 10284.
A man is such as are those two faculties with him, 7342, 8885, 9282, 10264, 10284.
Through them also the man is distinguished from the beasts, because his understanding may be elevated by the Lord so as to see Divine truths; and in like manner his will, so as to perceive Divine goods; the man thus differently from the animals, may be conjoined with the Lord through those two faculties which constitute him, 4525, 5114, 5302, 6323, 9231.
And inasmuch as the man may thus be conjoined with the Lord, he cannot die as to his interiors, which belong to his spirit, but he lives for ever, 5302.
Man is not man from his form, but from the good and truth which belong to his will and understanding, 4051, 5302.
As everything in the universe has relation to good and truth, so with man everything has relation to the will and the understanding, 803, 10122.
For the will is the receptacle of good, and the understanding of truth, 3332, 3623, 5232, 6065, 6125, 7503, 9300, 9930.
It is the same, whether you say truth or faith; for faith belongs to truth, and truth to faith; it also amounts to the same whether you say good or love; for love belongs to good, and good to love; and what a man believes, that he calls true, and what he loves, that he calls good, 4353, 4997, 7178, 10122, 10367.
From this it follows, that the understanding is the recipient of faith, and the will the recipient of love; and that faith and love are in man, when they are in his understanding and in his will, for man's life is nowhere else, 7178, 10122, 10367.
Since a man's understanding is capable of receiving faith in the Lord, and his will of receiving love to the Lord, therefore, by faith and love he may be conjoined with the Lord, and whoever can be conjoined with the Lord by faith and love, cannot die to eternity, 4525, 6323, 9231.
Love in the spiritual world means conjunction, 1594, 2057, 3939, 4018, 5807, 6195, 6196, 7081-7086, 7501, 10130.
Man's will is the very Esse of his life, because it is the receptacle of good, and his understanding is the Existere of life therefrom, because it is the receptacle of truth, 3619, 5002, 9282.
The life of the will, consequently, is the chief life of man, and the life of the understanding proceeds therefrom, 585, 590, 3619, 7342, 8885, 9282, 10076, 10109, 10110.
Comparatively as light proceeds from a fire or flame, 6032, 6314.
The things which enter into the understanding and at the same time into the will, are appropriated by man, but not those which are received only in the understanding, 9009, 9069, 9071, 9129, 9182, 9386, 9393, 10076, 10109, 10110.
Those things become matters of man's life, which are received by the will, and from it by the understanding, 8911, 9069, 9071, 10076, 10109, 10110.
Every man also is loved and esteemed by others according to the good of his will, and of his understanding therefrom; for he who is well-willing, and who understands correctly, is loved and esteemed, and he who understands correctly and is not well-willing, is cast off and despised, 8911, 10076.
A man after death also remains such as is his will and his understanding from it, 9069, 9071, 9386, 10153.
The things belonging to the understanding, and not at the same time to the will, vanish then, because they are not in the man's spirit, 9282;
or, what is the same, a man after death remains such as is his love, and the faith from it, or such as is his good and the truth from it; and the things which belong to faith and not at the same time to love, or the things which are of truth and not at the same time of good, vanish, because they are not in the man, and, therefore, not of the man, 553, 2363, 10153.
A man is capable of comprehending with the understanding what he does not practise from the will, that is, he is able to understand what he does not will, because it is in opposition to his love, 3539.
The will and the understanding constitute one mind, 35, 3623, 5835, 10122.
These two faculties of life ought to act as one, in order that man may be man, 3623, 5835, 5969, 9300.
How perverted is the state with those whose understanding and will do not act as one, 9075.
Such a state prevails with hypocrites, deceivers, flatterers, and dissemblers, 2426, 3573, 4327, 4799, 8250.
The will and the understanding are brought again into one in the other life, and it is not allowed there to have a divided mind, 8250.
Every doctrinal of the Church brings with itself ideas, through which its quality is perceived, 3310.
According to these is its comprehension; and without such an intellectual idea with a man, he would merely have an idea of a word, and none of a thing, 3825.
The ideas of the understanding extend far around into the societies of spirits and angels, 6599, 6600-6605, 6609, 6613.
The ideas of man's understanding are opened in the other life, and are exhibited visibly to the life, as to their quality, 1869, 3310, 5510.
Of what quality the ideas of some appear, 6201, 8885.
All will of good, and all understanding of truth is from the Lord; but not so the understanding of truth separated from the will of good, 1831, 3514, 5483, 5649, 6027, 8685, 8701, 10153.
It is the understanding which is enlightened by the Lord, 6222, 6608, 10659.
To those who are enlightened the Lord grants to see and to understand truth, 9382, 10659.
The enlightenment of the understanding is various, according to the states of a man's life, 5221, 7012, 7233.
The understanding is enlightened in proportion as a man receives the truth with the will, that is, as he wills to act according to it, 3619.
Those have their understanding enlightened who read the Word from the love of truth, and from the love of the uses of life, but not those who read it from the love of reputation, honour, gain, 9382, 10548, 10549, 10551.
Enlightenment is an actual elevation of the mind into the light of heaven, 10330;
from experience, 1526, 6608.
Enlightenment for the understanding is light from heaven, as light from the world is for the sight, 1524, 5114, 6608, 9128.
The light of heaven is Divine Truth, from which comes all wisdom and intelligence, 3195, 3222, 5400, 8644, 9399, 9548, 9684.
It is the man's understanding which is enlightened by that light, 1524, 3138, 3167, 4408, 6608, 8707, 9128, 9399, 10569.
The understanding is of such a quality as are the truths from good, of which it is formed, 10064.
Understanding is what is from the truths which are from good, but not what is from the falsities which are from evil, 10675.
Understanding is to see truths, the causes of things, their connections, and consequences in a series, from the things which belong to experience and science 6125.
Seeing and perceiving whether a thing is true, before confirming it, is understanding, but not, being able to confirm anything whatever, 4741, 7012, 7680, 7950, 8521, 8780.
The light of confirmation, without any previous perception of the truth, is natural light, which exists also with those who are not wise, 8780.
Seeing and perceiving whether a thing is true before confirming it, has place only with those who are affected with truth for the sake of truth, consequently with those who are in spiritual light, 8780.
All doctrinal tenets, even those that are false, may be confirmed to such a degree as to appear as true, 2385, 2490, 4741, 5033, 6865, 7950.
How the Rational with a man is conceived and born, 2094, 2524, 2557, 3030, 5126.
It exists from the influx of the light of heaven from the Lord through the internal man into the knowledges and sciences, which are in the external man, and an elevation by this means, 1890, 1899, 1900, 1901, 1902.
The Rational is born through truths, and not through falsities; according to the quality of the truths, therefore, such is the Rational, 2094, 2524, 2557.
Through truths from good, the Rational is opened and formed, and it is closed and destroyed through falsities from evil, 3108, 5126.
A man who is in falsities from evil is not rational; a man, consequently, is not rational on account of his being able to reason upon any subject, 1944.
It is difficult for a man to distinguish between the understanding and the will, because it is difficult for him to distinguish between thinking and willing, 9995.
Many additional particulars concerning the will and the understanding may be known and inferred from what has been adduced above concerning Good and Truth, if only instead of Good you will perceive the will, and instead of Truth the understanding; for the will belongs to good, and the understanding to truth.